Prior’s concept of possible worlds: Clasp between Wittgenstein and Warsaw´s School

Zuzana Rybaříková

Abstract


Arthur Prior was one of the logicians who participated in the invention of the possible worlds’ semantics. The ontology, which is connected with his systems of modal logic, is unique. Prior tried to reduce the number of abstract entities as much as possible. Hence he did not elect to introduce possible worlds and possibilia into his ontology. In addition, he held a reductionist view, which is called modal actualism by Fine or modalism by Melia. Prior was inspired by various authors but this paper mainly discusses the influence of two prominent sources, Wittgenstein and logicians from Warsaw School. Prior acknowledged Wittgenstein’s influence, when he discuss the view that possible worlds consist of propositions. The second important feature of Prior’s concept is the denial of the real existence of possible worlds and the denial of the existence of entities which are in them. It was probably enabled by Prior’s adoption of some systems of logic invented by logicians from Warsaw school, especially Leśniewski’s and Łukasiewicz’s systems.

Keywords


Arthur Prior, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Stanisław Leśniewski, Jan Łukasiewicz, modal logic, possible worlds

Full Text:

PDF (Czech)

References

Show references Hide references

BLACKBURN, P., 2003. Arthur Prior and Hybrid Logic. Synthese [online]. roč. 150, č. 3, s. 329–372 [vid. 3. březen 2011]. ISSN: 1573-0964. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1007/s11229-005-5512-y.

BRAÜNER, T., 2002. Modal Logic, Truth and the Master Modality. Journal of Philosophical Logic [online]. roč. 31, č. 4, s. 359–386 [vid. 12. září 2014]. ISSN: 1573-0433. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1023/A:1019992820056.

CHRUDZIMSKI, A. 2003. Contentless Syntax, Ineffable Semantics, and Transcendental Ontology. Reections on Wittgenstein's Tractatus. KRITERION [online]. roč. 17, č. 1., s. 1–6 [vid. 25. červen 2015]. ISSN: 10198288. Dostupné na: http://www.kriterion.at/articles.php.

COPELAND, B. J., 2002. The Genesis of Possible Worlds Semantic. Journal of Philosophical Logic [online]. roč. 31, č. 2, s. 99–137 [vid. 10. září 2013]. ISSN: 1573-0433. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1023/A:1015273407895.

COPELAND, B. J., 2006. Meredith, Prior and the History of Possible Worlds Semantic. Synthese [online]. roč. 150, č. 3, s. 373–397 [vid. 10. září 2013]. ISSN: 1573-0964. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1007/s11229–005–5514–9.

FINE, K., 2005. Modality and Tense. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN: 97–0–19–927870–1.

FINE, K., 1977. Postscript. In: A. N. PRIOR, Kit FINE. Worlds, Times and Selves. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, s. 116–161. ISBN: 0–87023–227–4.

LEJEWSKI, C., 1954. Logic and Existence. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science [online]. roč. 5, č. 18, s.104-119 [vid. 28. listopad 2012]. ISSN: 00070882. Dostupné z: doi: 10.2307/685168.

LEŚNIEWSKI, Jan, 1992. Collected Works. S. J. Surma, J. T. Srzednicki, D. I. Barnett, ed. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company – Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publisher. ISBN: 079231512X.

LOKHORST, G-J., 1988. Ontology, Semantics and Philosophy of Mind in Wittgenstein's "Tractatus": A Formal Reconstruction. Erkenntnis, roč. 29, č. 1, s. 35–75 [vid. 25. červen 2015]. ISSN: 15728420. Dostupné z: doi: 10.2307/20012163.

ŁUKASIEWICZ, Jan Leopold, 1970a. Farewell Lecture by Professor Jan Łukasiewicz, delivered in the Warsaw University Lecture Hall on March 7, 1918. In: J. L. ŁUKASIEWICZ. Selected Works. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company – Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publisher, s. 84–86. ISBN: 0720422523.

ŁUKASIEWICZ, Jan Leopold, 1970b. In Defence of Logistic. In: J. L. ŁUKASIEWICZ. Selected Works. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company – Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publisher, s. 236–249. ISBN: 0720422523.

ŁUKASIEWICZ, Jan Leopold, 1970c. On determinism. . In: J. L. ŁUKASIEWICZ. Selected Works. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company – Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publisher, 110–128. ISBN: 0720422523.

MARKOSKA-CUBRINOVSKA, A., 2014. Possible Worlds in “The Craft of Formal Logic”. Abstrakt [online] [vid. 28. říjen 2014]. Dostupné na: http://conference.prior.aau.dk/pdf/Aneta_Markoska_Cubrinovska.pdfconference.prior.aau.dk.

MCTAGGART, J. Ellis., 1908. The Unreality of Time. Mind [online]. roč. 17, č. 68, s. 457–474 [vid. 22. únor 2011] ISSN: 14602113. Dostupné z: doi: 10.2307/2248314.

MEREDITH, C. A. a A. N. PRIOR, 1965. Modal Logic with Functorial Variables and a Contingent Constant. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic [online]. roč. 6, č. 2, s. 99–109 [vid. 15. leden 2012]. ISSN: 1939-0726. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1305/ndjfl/1093958149.

MELIA, J., 2003. Modality. Chesham: Acumen Publishing Limited. ISBN: 1–902683–48–X.

ØHRSTØRM, P. a P. HASLE, 1995. Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence. Dodrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dordrecht. ISBN: 0–7923–3586–4.

PLOUG, T. a P. ØHRSTØRM, 2012. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic: Unveiling the Prior-Kripke letters. Synthese [online]. roč. 188, č. 3, s. 367–379. [vid. 26. září 2013]. ISSN: 1573-0964. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1007/s11229–011–9944–2.

PRIOR, A. N., 1949a. Logic and the Basis of Ethics, Oxford. Clarendon Press. ISBN: 0–19–824157–7.

PRIOR, A. N., 1949b. Determinables, Determinates and Determinants. Mind [online]. roč. 58, č. 229, s. 1–20 [vid. 1. únor 2012]. ISSN: 14602113.

PRIOR, A. N., 1952. Łukasiewicz’s Symbolic logic. Australian Journal of Philosophy [online]. roč. 30, č. 1, s. 33–46. [vid. 16. září 2014]. ISSN: 1471-6828. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1080/00048405285200031.

PRIOR, A. N., 1953a. Three-valued logic and future contingents. The Philosophical Quarterly [online]. roč. 3, č. 13, s. 317–326. [vid. 1. únor 2012]. ISSN: 00318094. Dostupné z: doi: 10.2307/2217099.

PRIOR, A. N., 1953b. On Propositions Neither Necessary Nor Impossible. Journal of Symbolic Logic [online]. roč. 18, č. 2, s. 105–108. [vid. 1. únor 2012]. ISSN: 00224812. Dostupné z: doi: 10.2307/2268940.

PRIOR, A. N., 1955a. Diodorean Modalities. The Philosophical Quarterly [online]. roč. 5, č. 20, s. 205–213. [vid. 23. červen 2012]. ISSN: 14679213. Dostupné z: doi: 10.2307/2957434.

PRIOR, A. N., 1957. Time and Modality. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN: 0–19–824158–5.

PRIOR, A. N., 1962. Possible Worlds. The Philosophical Quarterly [online]. roč. 12, č. 46, s. 36–43 [vid. 1. únor 2012]. ISSN: 14679213. Dostupné z: doi: 10.2307/2216837.

PRIOR, A. N., 1967. Past, Present and Future. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN-10: 0–19–824311–1.

PRIOR, A. N., 1969. Possibly-true and the Possible. Mind [online]. roč. 78, č. 312, s. 481–492 [vid. 1. únor 2012]. ISSN: 00264423. Dostupné z: doi: 10.2307/2252687.

PRIOR, A. N., 1971. Object of Thought. P. T. Geach a A. J. P. Kenny, ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN: 0–19–824354–5.

PRIOR, A. N., 1976a. The Doctrine of Propositions and Terms. P. T. Geach a A. J. P. Kenny, ed. London: Duckworth. ISBN: 0–7156–0691–3.

PRIOR, A. N., 1976b. Intentionality and Intensionality. In: A. N. Prior, Papers in Logic and Ethics. P. T. Geach a A. J. P. Kenny, ed. London: Duckworth, s. 187–201. ISBN: 0–7156–0821–5.

PRIOR, A. N. a K. FINE, 1977. Worlds, Times and Selves. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN: 0–87023–227–4.

PRIOR, A. N. a C. A. Meredith, 1996. Interpretations of Different Modal Logics in the "Property Calculus". In: J. B. Copeland, ed. Logic and Reality: Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior, Oxford: Oxford University Press/Clarendon Press, s. 133–134. ISBN: 0–19–824060–0.

PRIOR, A. N., 2003. Papers on Time and Tense. P. Hasle, P. Øhrstørm, T. Braüner, J. Copeland, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 0–19–925606–3.

PRIOR, A. N., 2014. Reaction to Determinism. [online]. [vid. 28. říjen 2014]. Dostupné na: http://research.prior.aau.dk/cms/uploads/pdf/proofread/20110208202553.pdf.

PROOPS, I., 2004. Wittgenstein on the Substance of the World. European Journal of Philosophy [online]. roč.12, č.1, s. 106–126 [vid. 25. březen 2014]. ISSN 0966-8373. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1111/j.0966-8373.2004.00200.x.

SIMONS, P., 1982. On Understanding Leśniewski. History and Philosophy of Logic [online]. roč.3, č.2, s. 165–191 [vid. 17. září 2014]. ISSN: 1464–5149. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1080/01445348208837038.

SIMONS, P., 1996. Nominalism in Poland. In: J. T. J. Srzednicki a Z. Stachniak, eds. Leśniewski’s Systems: Protothetic. Dordrecht: Kluwer, s. 1–22. ISBN: 9401064199.

SUZSKO, R., 1967. Ontology in Tractatus of L. Wittgenstein. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic [online]. roč. 9, č. 1, s. 7–33 [vid. 25. březen 2013]. ISSN: 1939–0726. Dostupné z: doi: 10.1305/ndjfl/1093893349.

URBANIAK, R., 2014. Leśniewski’s Systém of Logic and Foundation of Mathematics. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN: 978–3–31900482–2.

WITTGENSTEIN. L., 2007. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Překlad P. Glombíček. Praha: OIKOYMENH. ISBN: 978–80–7298–284–4.

WITTGENSTEIN. L., 2014. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, SIDE-BY-SIDE-BY-SIDE EDITION, VERSION 0.41 (FEBRUARY 11, 2014), McGuinness English translations, [vid. 10. srpen 2014]. Dostupné na: http://people.umass.edu/klement/tlp/.

WOLEŃSKI. J., 1989. Logic and Philosophy in the Lvov-Warsaw School. Dordrecht: Kluwer. ISBN: 9401076669.

WOLEŃSKI, Jan, 1999. Essays in the history of logic and Logical Philosophy. Cracov: Jagiellonian University Press. ISBN: 8323312397.

ZUBER, Ryszard, 1998. Some Polish Contribution to the Study of the Structure of Natural Language. In: Katarzyna Kija nia-Placek and Jan Woleński, eds. Lvov Warsaw School and Contemporary Philosophy Dordrecht: Kluwer, s. 220–238. ISBN: 9401061467.





Published by the Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
ISSN: 1212-9097