Why Do We Speak about Pantheism in Renaissance Thought?

Tomáš Nejeschleba

Abstract


The aim of the paper is to determine the concept of Pantheism in Renaissance. Although the term “Pantheism“ only emerged at the end of the 17th century in the context of so-called “Pantheismusstreit”, Giordano Bruno was labeled the predecessor of Modern pantheistic thought. Nicolaus of Cusa, as a follower of Maister Eckhart, also began to be viewed as a pantheist. Both Nicolaus of Cusa and Giordano Bruno advocated in a certain sense the immanence of the divine in the world, but simultaneously also stressed the difference between God and nature and ascribed transcendence or at least transcendental aspects to God. This view is not in concord with the definition of pantheism in a strong sense as the identity of God and the world. It seems, therefore, that the concept of Renaissance pantheism is an artificial construct, which was created by violently applying the terminology of Enlightenment philosophy on the Renaissance period.

Keywords


Giordano Bruno; Nicolaus of Cusa; Pantheism; Renaissance philosophy

https://doi.org/10.5817/pf18-1-1762

Full Text:

PDF (Czech)

References

Show references Hide references

Arfé, P. (2003): Alberto Magno e Nicola Cusano interpreti dell’Asclepius, in Thurner, M. (ed.) Nicolaus Cusanus zwischen Deutschland und Italien, Akademie-Verlag, 129–51.

Baeumer, M. L. (1967): Hölderlin und das Hen kai Pan, Monatshefte 59(2), 131–47.

Bayle, P. (1983): Écrits Sur Spinoza, eds. Moreau, P.-F. – Charles-Dauber, F., Berg international.

Beierwaltes, W. (1993): Einleitung, in Giordano Bruno, Von der Ursache, dem Prinzip und dem Einem, ed. P. R. Blum, Felix Meiner, IX–L.

Blum, P. R. (2010): Philosophy of religion in the Renaissance, Ashgate.

Blum, P. R. (2012): Giordano Bruno : an Introduction, Rodopi.

Blumenberg, H. (1976): Selbsterhaltung und Beharrung. Zur Konstitution der neuzeitlichen Rationalitat, in Ebeling, H. (ed.) Subjektivität und Selbsterhaltung: Beiträge zur Diagnose der Moderne, Suhrkamp, 144–207.

Blumenberg, H. (1996): Die Legitimität der Neuzeit, Neuausgabe, Suhrkamp.

Brown, M. (2012): A Political Biography of John Toland, Pickering & Chatto.

Bruno, G. (1958): Dialoghi italiani: dialoghi metafisici e dialoghi morali, eds. Gentile, G. – Aquilecchia, G., Sansoni.

Bruno, G. (2008): Dialogy, přel. Kozák, J. B., Academia.

Canone, E. (1998): Brunus redivivus. Momenti della fortuna di Giordano Bruno nel XIX secolo, Bruniana & Campanelliana. Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionali.

Cassirer, E. (1922): Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit, Zweiter Band, Bruno Cassirer.

Cassirer, E. (2013): Individuum und Kosmos in der Philosophie der Renaissance, Felix Meiner.

Clayton, P. (2004): Panentheism in Metaphysical and Scientific Perspective, in Clayton, P. – Peacocke, A. (eds.) In Whom We Live and Move and Have Our Being: Panentheistic Reflections on God’s Presence in a Scientific World, William B. Eerdmans, 73–91.

Cusa, Nicolas de (1932): De docta ignorantia, eds. Hoffmann, E. – Klibansky. R., Heidelberger Ausgabe der Opera omnia, sv. 1., Felix Meiner, dostupné z http://urts99.uni-trier.de/cusanus/content/werke.php.

Cusa, Nicolas de (2007): Apologia doctae ignorantiae, ed. Klibansky. R., Heidelberger Ausgabe der Opera omnia, sv. 2, Felix Meiner, dostupné z http://urts99.uni-trier.de/cusanus/content/werke.php.

Daniel, S. H. (1984). John Toland: His Methods, Manner, and Mind, McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Daniel, S. H. (1997): Toland’s Semantic Pantheism, in McGuinnes, P. – Harrison, A. – Kearney, R. (eds.) John Toland’s Christianity Not Mysterious: Text, Associated Works and Critical Essays, The Lilliput Press, 303–312.

Diderot, Denis (1800): Opinions des Anciens Philosophes, Deterville.

Dilthey, W. (1921a): Der Entwicklungsgeschichte Pantheismus nach seinem geschichtlichen Zusammenhang mit den älteren pantheistischen Systemen, in Mish, G. (ed.) Weltanschauung und Analyse des Menschen seit Renaissance und Reformation. Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Philosophie und Religion. Wilhelm Diltheys gesammelte Schriften, Band 2, G. B. Teubner, 312–90.

Dilthey, W. (1921b): Giordano Bruno, in Misch, G. (ed.) Weltanschauung und Analyse des Menschen seit Renaissance und Reformation. Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Philosophie und Religion. Wilhelm Diltheys gesammelte Schriften, Band 2, G. B. Teubner, 297–311.

Dupré, L. (2006): The Question of Pantheism from Eckhart to Cusanus, in Casarella, P. J. (ed.) Cusanus : The Legacy of Learned Ignorance, Catholic University of America Press, 74–88.

Eusterschulte, A. (1997): Giordano Bruno zur Einführung, Junius Verlag.

Fiorentino, F. (1861): Il panteismo di Giordano Bruno, M. Lombardi.

Flasch, K. (1998): Nikolaus von Kues. Geschichte einer Entwicklung. Vorlesungen zur Einführung in seine Philosophie, Klostermann.

Floss, P. (2001): Mikuláš Kusánský. Život a dílo renesančního filosofa, matematika a politika. Vyšehrad.

Floss, P. (2014): Architekti křesťanského středověkého vědění, UP Olomouc.

Garin, E. (2008): History of Italian Philosophy, Rodopi.

Gatti, H. (2011): Essays on Giordano Bruno, Princeton University Press.

Gooch, T. (2013): Bruno Reincarnate. The Early Feuerbach on God, Love and Death, Journal for the History of Modern Theology / Zeitschrift für neuere Theologie-Geschichte 20, 21–43.

Hedley, D. (1996): Pantheism, Trinitarian Theism and the Idea of Unity: Reflections on the Christian Concept of God, Religious Studies 32(1), 61–77.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1836): Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie, Band 3, Duncker und Humbolt.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1974): Dějiny filosofie, svazek 3, Academia.

Hirschberger, J. (1980): Geschichte der Philosophie, Band 2, Neuzeit, Herder.

Hopkins, J. (1981): Nicholas of Cusa’s Debate with John Wenck : a Translation and an Appraisal of De ignota litteratura and Apologia doctae ignorantiae, Arthur.J. Banning Press.

Hopkins, J. (1994): A Miscellany on Nicholas of Cusa, Arthur J. Banning Press.

Horyna, B. (2003): Schellings Bruno: Ein Dialog über die Erkenntnis des Ewigen, in Nejeschleba, T. (ed.) Philosophy of Giordano Bruno / Die Philosophie von Giordano Bruno, UP Olomouc, 159–66.

Champion, J. (2003): Republican Learning : John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696–1722, Manchester University Press.

Israel, J. I. (2001): Radical Enlightenment : Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650–1750, Oxford University Press.

Jacob, M. (1981): The Radical Enlightenment : Pantheists, Freemasons and Republicans, Allen & Unwin.

Jacobi, F. H. (1997): O Spinozově učení v dopisech panu Mojžíši Mendelssohnovi, přel. Loužil, J., Oikoymenh.

Janssens, D. (2003): The Problem of the Enlightenment: Strauss, Jacobi, and the Pantheism Controversy, The Review of Metaphysics 56(3), 605–31, dostupné z: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20131859.

Jäsche, G. B. (1826): Der Pantheismus nach seinen verschiedenen Hauptformen, seinem Ursprung und Fortgange, seinem speculativen und praktischen Werth und Gehalt, Reimer.

Kristeller, P. O. (1984): Stoic and Neoplatonic Sources of Spinoza’s Ethics, History of European Ideas 5(1), 1–15.

Kristeller, P. O. (2007): Osm filosofů italské renesance, Vyšehrad.

La Faye, Jacques de (1709): Defensio religionis nec non Mosis et gentis judaicae contra duas Dissertationes Joh. Tolandi, Ultrajectum.

Lechner, G. (2014): Transzendenz und Immanenz Gottes bei Giordano Bruno, GRIN Verlag.

Levine, M. (1986a): More on ‘Does Traditional Theism Entail Pantheism?, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 20, 31–35.

Levine, M. (1986b): Why Traditional Theism does not Entail Pantheism, Sophia 23(2), 13–20.

Levine, M. (1992): Pantheism, Substance and Unity, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 32(1), 1–23.

Levine, M. (1994): Pantheism a Non-Theistic Concept of Deity, Routledge.

Levine, M. (2012): Pantheism, in Zalta, E. N (ed.) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [online], [cit. 2016-10-30], dostupné z: .

MacIntyre, A. (1967): Pantheism, in Edwards, P. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sv. 5., Macmillan and Free Press.

Mander, W. J. (2007): Theism, Pantheism, and Petitionary Prayer, Religious Studies 43(3), 317–31.

Mander, W. J. (2012): Pantheism. Zalta, E. N (ed.) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [online], [cit. 2016-10-30] dostupné z:

McFarland, T. (1969): Coleridge and the Pantheist Tradition, Clarendon Press.

McGinn, B. (2001): The Mystical Thought of Meister Eckhart : the Man from whom God Hid Nothing. The Edward Cadbury Lectures, Crossroad Pub.

Moran, D. (1990): Pantheism from John Scottus Eriugena to Nicholas of Cusa, American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 64(1), 131–52.

Mulsow, M. (1998): Frühneuzeitliche Selbsterhaltung: Telesio und die Naturphilosophie der Renaissance, Max Niemeyer Verlag.

Oakes, R. (1983): Does Traditional Theism Entail Pantheism. American Philosophical Quarterly 20(1), 105–12.

Oakes, R. (1985): Theism and Pantheism Again, Sophia 24, 32–37.

Owen, H. P. (1971): Concepts of Deity, Macmillan.

Pisarek, H. (2003): Über den Pantheismus von Giordano Bruno, in Nejeschleba, T. (ed.) Philosophy of Giordano Bruno / Die Philosophie von Giordano Bruno, UP Olomouc, 65–76.

Raphson, J. (1697): De Spatio reali seu Ente infinito, John Taylor.

Schaff, P. (1882): The History of Christian Church, sv. 8., Charles Scribner’s Son.

Schelling, F. W. J. (1802): Bruno; oder, Über das göttliche und natürliche Princip der Dinge. Ein Gespräch, F. Unger.

Schmidt-Biggemann, W. (2004): Philosophia perennis. Historical Outlines of Western Spirituality in Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern Thought, Springer.

Scholz, H. (2004): Die Hauptschriften zum Pantheismusstreit zwischen Jacobi und Mendelssohn, H. Spenner.

Schopenhauer, A. (2011): Parerga a paralipomena: malé filosofické spisy, přel. Váňa, M., sv. 2, Nová tiskárna Pelhřimov.

Schröder, W. (1989): Pantheismus, in Ritter, J. – Gründer, K. – Gabriel, G. (eds.) Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, sv. 7, Schwabe, 59–63.

Skrbina, D. (2005): Panpsychism in the West, MIT Press.

Suttle, G. (2005a): Raphson, Joseph (1648–1715), in Taylor, B. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, Thoemmes Continuum, 1341–42.

Suttle, G. (2005b): Toland, John (1670–1722), in Taylor, B. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, Thoemmes Continuum, 1639–40.

Toland, J. (1705): Socinianism Truly Stated, Being an Example of fair Dealing in all Theological Controversys, London.

van der Lugt, M. (2012): ‚I will utter dark sayings of old´: John Toland, Pantheism and Pathos of Secrecy, De Achttiende Eeuw 44(1), 103–30.

Voigt, Ch. (2003): Der englische Deismus in Deutschland : eine Studie zur Rezeption englisch-deistischer Literatur in deutschen Zeitschriften und Kompendien des 18. Jahrhunderts, Mohr Siebeck.

Yasukata, T. (2003): Lessing’s Philosophy of Religion and the German Enlightenment,: Oxford University Press.





Published by the Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
ISSN: 1212-9097