Informační strategie boje proti dezinformaci: Přehledová studie vlivných technologických společností po prezidentských volbách v USA v roce 2016

Petr Ulrich

Abstrakt


Účel – Prudký rozvoj informačních technologií spolu se sociálními sítěmi vytvořil bezprecedentní prostředí, ve kterém jsou dezinformace a s nimi spojované informační operace povýšeny na velmi účinné a devastující zbraně hromadného ničení. Účelově vedená dezinformační kampaň v kyberprostoru již dnes dokáže ovlivnit výsledky demokratických voleb na úrovni světové velmoci. Jedná se proto o velmi závažné celospolečenské téma a problém, u kterého dosud neexistuje účinná obrana. Naším cílem je zmapovat aktuální přístupy boje proti dezinformaci z pohledu provozovatele technologických platforem, které jsou pro šíření dezinformace zneužívány, a navrhnout jednoduchý kategorizační model obranných informačních strategií.

Design/metodologie/přístup – Hlavní otázkou, kterou si klademe, je, jak vlivné technologické společnosti ve svých procesech, nástrojích a vizích dalšího produktového směřování reagovaly na událost prezidentských voleb v USA v roce 2016. Svou pozornost zúžíme pouze na oblast sociálních sítí a sledované období uzavřeme březnem 2018. Tato teoretická práce bude založena na následujících metodických postupech:

a) Dokumentová analýza primárních zdrojů publikovaných jednotlivými sledovanými technologickými společnostmi.

b) Mediální analýza zpravodajských zdrojů, které situaci komentují jak z pohledu informační strategie, tak i z pohledu    různých sociokulturně-politických „spouštěčů“. 

Výsledky – Na základě analýzy sledovaných technologických společností a sociokulturně-politických „spouštěčů“ jsme stanovili základní kategorizaci informačních strategií boje proti dezinformaci a promítli ji do první verze funkčního modelu, jaký dosud ještě nebyl pro tuto potřebu vytvořen. Z dílčích strategií se jako nejnosnější prokázala strategie postavená na automatizovaných fact‑checking systémech s podporou umělé inteligence.

Originalita/hodnota – Mediátorům obsahu, tedy vydavatelům a jejich redakcím, je již v současnosti věnováno mnoho pozornosti v řadě studií a analýz, které navazují na rozsáhlý historický výzkum v oblasti vývoje médií a komunikace. Na druhou stranu rovina informační strategie provozovatele komunikační platformy, na kterou se v naší analýze zaměřujeme, je v tomto kontextu online světa novou a dosud nepříliš probádanou oblastí, která přináší nové otázky a výzvy s ohledem na řízení těchto platforem z perspektivy oborů informačního managementu a informační politiky.


Klíčová slova


dezinformace, informační operace, informační strategie, boj proti dezinformaci, komunikační platformy, analýza informačních strategií, model informačních strategií proti dezinformaci, klasifikace informačních strategií proti dezinformaci, hoax

https://doi.org/10.5817/ProIn2018-2-3

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