Prínos fenomenografických výskumov pre informačnú vedu

Jela Steinerová, Jakub Fázik, Františka Nováková

Abstrakt


Účel – Cieľom príspevku je analyzovať prínosy aj obmedzenia metodológie fenomenografie, ktorá bola uplatnená v nedávnych výskumoch informačnej vedy na KKIV. Stručne sa analyzujú vybrané štúdie využívajúce fenomenografiu v informačnej vede (Limberg et  al., 2012; Bruce, 2016; Andretta, 2010; Webber et al., 2005; Diem &  Lupton, 2012; Virkus, Bagimbola, 2013 ai.).

Dizajn/metodológia/prístup – Analyzujú sa vybrané štúdie založené na dizertačných prácach zameraných na informačnú gramotnosť (Fázik, 2019), informačnú etiku (Nováková, 2018) a projekt informačného správania vedcov (Steinerová, 2018) s uplatnením meta-analýzy. Štúdie využívajú metodológiu fenomenografických analýz kombinovaných so zberom dát prostredníctvom polo-štruktúrovaných rozhovorov, dotazníkov, písomných úloh, informačných horizontov študentov. Analýzy sa kombinujú aj s pojmovým modelovaním  a vizualizáciou výsledných konceptuálnych priestorov v záverečných modeloch informačnej gramotnosti, informačnej etiky a informačného prostredia vedeckej komunikácie.

Výsledky – Predstavujú sa spoločné aspekty vybraných fenomenografických štúdií, najmä vzťahy k digitálnym technológiám, emocionálne podložie, motivácie a sociálne a situačné reprezentácie. Výhodami fenomenografických analýz sú bohaté kontexty odkrývajúce príčiny problémov v oblastiach informačnej gramotnosti, informačnej etiky a informačného správania. Obmedzeniami metodológie sú náročnosť viacnásobných analýz a interpretácií získaných dát, verifikovanie výsledkov, prekonávanie subjektivity a validita výskumov. Preto sa zvyčajne vybrané metódy kombinujú s inými metódami výskumu, napríklad pozorovanie, riešenie úloh a problémov, vizualizácie reprezentácií informácií ap.

Originalita – Charakterizuje sa inovatívny prístup k fenomenografickým analýzam v informačnej vede. Potvrdzujeme predstavy o sociokognitívnych, sociotechnologických a sociokultúrnych základoch využívania informácií v oblastiach informačnej gramotnosti, informačnej etiky a informačného správania. Na základe analýz sa predstavujú konceptuálne modely informačných interakcií, digitálnej gramotnosti a digitálnej etiky s aplikáciou nových poznatkov fenomengrafických štúdií. Formulujú sa odporúčania na podporu informačnej gramotnosti, informačnej etiky študentov a na formovanie informačného prostredia a informačných infraštruktúr akademických inštitúcií.


Klíčová slova


fenomenografia, informačná gramotnosť, informačná etika, informačné správanie

https://doi.org/10.5817/ProIn2020-1-2

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