Student Nonconformity at School

Kateřina Lojdová

Abstrakt


The aim of this qualitative research was to describe forms of pupil nonconformity at school and how these were codified. An analysis of 61 student teachers’ narratives about their own lower secondary school attendance gave us some insight into their childhoods. Based on this analysis, we describe the normative worlds of the family and peer collective that can reinforce or weaken pupil nonconformity at school. The paper then focuses on norms specific to schools and how they are codified. These determine the forms of pupil nonconformity, which are divided according to five criteria: type of social norm, number of actors, sanctions, pupils’ perception of the nonconformity, and location. This study describes learning outside formal curricula at school as well as pupils’ perspectives and their active role in this process.


Klíčová slova


discipline at school, conformity, nonconformity, narrative analysis, routine deviation, school rules

Celý článek:

PDF (English)

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Allport, G. W. (1958). " The nature of prejudice". Garden City: Doubleday Anchor Books.

Asch, S. E. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgment. In H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, leadership and men (177–190). Pittsburgh: Carnegie Press.

Baier, M. (2013). Social and legal norms: Towards a socio-legal understanding of normativity. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.

Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1967). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. London: Penguin Press.

Bernstein, B., Elvin, H. L., & Peters, R. S. (1966). Ritual in education. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 251(772), 429–436. | DOI 10.1098/rstb.1966.0029

Bittnerová, D. (2002). Rvačka jako kulturní forma. In Pražská skupina školní etnografie, 1.–8. třída: Příloha závěrečné z právy o řešení grantového projektu GA ČR 406/00/0470 "Žák v měnících se podmínkách současné školy" (1–48). Praha: Univerzita Karlova, PdF. Retrieved from http://kps.pedf.cuni.cz/psse/pdf/tridy/7/bittner.pdf

Bourdieu, P. (1998). Teorie jednání. Praha: Karolinum.

Bourdieu, P., & Passeron J.-C. (1990). Reproduction in education, society and culture. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory. Los Angeles: Sage.

Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55(1), 591–621.

Collier, K. L. (2012). Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 35(4), 899–907. | DOI 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.12.010

Collier, K. L. (2013). Homophobic name-calling among secondary school students and its implications for mental health. Journal of Youth, 42(3), 363–375. | DOI 10.1007/s10964-012-9823-2

Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. L. (2015). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Los Angeles: Sage.

Corsaro, W. A. (2015). The sociology of childhood. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Cortazzi, M. (2014). Narrative analysis. Oxon: Routledge.

Čermák, I. (2002). Myslet narativně (kvalitativní výzkum "on the road"). In I. Čermák & I. Miovský (Eds.), Sborník z konference Kvalitativní výzkum ve vědách o člověku na prahu třetího tisíciletí (pp. 11–25). Brno: Psychologický ústav AV ČR.

Forsyth, D. R. (2009). Group dynamics. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Foucault, M. (1975). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Random House.

Giroux, H. A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education: Towards a pedagogy for the opposition. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.

Goffman, E. (1990). The presentation of self in everyday life. London: Penguin Books.

Hájek, M. (2014). Čtenář a stroj: Vybrané metody sociálněvědní analýzy textů. Praha: Sociologické nakladatelství.

Hargreaves, D. H., Hester, S., & Mellor, F. J. (2011). Deviance in classrooms. London: Routledge.

Haynes, N. M. (2012). Group dynamics: Basics and pragmatics for practitioners. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.

Higdon, M. J. (2011). To lynch a child: Bullying and gender nonconformity in our nation's schools. Indiana Law Journal, 86(3), 827–878.

Holstein, J. A., & Gubrium, J. F. (2012). Varieties of narrative analysis. Los Angeles: Sage.

Ingram, G. P., & Bering, J. M. (2010). Children's tattling: The reporting of everyday norm violations in preschool settings. Child Development, 81(3), 945–957. | DOI 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01444.x

Jenks, Ch. (1996). Childhood. London: Routledge.

Kaščák, O. (2006). K niektorým aspektom skúmania vplyvu nediskurzívnych charakteristík tradičnej školy na dieťa. Pedagogika, (56)3, 210–220.

Kaščák, O. (2008). O moci školy a bezmocnosti detí. Studia paedagogica, 13(1), 127–139.

Katrňák, T. (2004). Odsouzeni k manuální práci: Vzdělanostní reprodukce v dělnické rodině. Praha: Sociologické nakladatelství.

Kincheloe, J. (2004). Critical pedagogy primer. New York: P. Lang.

Lojdová, K. (2015a). Není nekázeň jako nekázeň: Rezistentní chování žáků jako projev moci ve školní třídě. Orbis Scholae, 9(1), 103–117.

Lojdová, K. (2015b). Skryté kurikulum, žité příběhy. Narativy studentů učitelství o škole. Pedagogická orientace, 25(5), 649–670. | DOI 10.5817/PedOr2015-5-649

Manke, M. P. (2008). Classroom power relations: Understanding student-teacher interaction. New York: Routledge.

McDonald, R. I., & Crandall, Ch. S. (2015). Social norms and social influence. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 3(1), 147–151. | DOI 10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.04.006

McLaren, P. (1999). Schooling as a ritual performance: Toward a political economy of educational symbols and gestures. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

McLeod, J. (2008). Ain't no makin' it: Leveled aspirations in a low-income neighborhood. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Merton, R. K. (2000). Studie ze sociologické teorie. Praha: Sociologické nakladatelství.

Metz, M. H. (1979). lassrooms and corridors: The crisis of authority in desegregated secondary schools. California: University of California Press.

Newley, R. J. (2011). Classrooms: Management, effectiveness and challenges. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Obrovská, J. (2016). Frajeři, rapeři a propadlíci: Etnografie etnicity a etnizace v desegregované školní třídě. Sociologický časopis, 52(1), 53–78.

Pace, J. L., & Hemmings, A. B. (2006). Classroom authority: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Routledge.

Pražská skupina školní etnografie. (2004). Čeští žáci po deseti letech. Praha: Univerzita Karlova, PdF.

Rendl, M. (1994). Učitel v žákovském diskursu. Pedagogika, 44(4), 347–354.

Riessman, C. K. (2008). Narrative methods for the human sciences. Boston: Sage.

Saldana, J. (2013). Power and conformity in today's schools. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(1), 228–232.

Schostak, J. F. (2012). Maladjusted schooling: Deviance, social control, and individuality in secondary schooling. London: Routledge.

Thornberg, R. (2008a). School children's reasoning about school rules. Research Papers in Education, 23(1), 37–52. | DOI 10.1080/02671520701651029

Thornberg, R. (2008b). "It's not fair!" – Voicing pupils' criticisms of school rules. Children & Society, (22)6, 418–428. | DOI 10.1111/j.1099-0860.2007.00121.x

Toomey, R. B., McGuire, J. K., & Russel, S. T. (2012). Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers. Journal of Adolescence, 35(1), 187–196. | DOI 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.03.001

Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R. M., Card, N. A., & Russel, S. T. (2010). Gender-nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: School victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 46(6), 1580–1589. | DOI 10.1037/a0020705

Whelen, J. (2011). Boys and their schooling: The experience of becoming someone else. New York: Routledge.

Willis, P. (1977). Learning to labor: How working class kids get working class jobs. New York: Columbia University Press.

Winograd, K. (2005). Good day, bad day: Teaching as a high-wire act. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Woods, P. (1980). Pupil strategies: Explorations in the sociology of the school. London: Croom Helm.

Woods, P. (2012). The divided school. London: Routledge.

Workman, J. E. & Johnson, K. K. (1994). Effects of conformity and nonconformity to genderrole expectations for dress: Teachers versus students. Adolescence, 29(113), 207–223.




 


Časopis Ústavu pedagogických věd FF MU.

Výkonná redakce: Klára Šeďová, Roman Švaříček, Zuzana Šalamounová, Martin Sedláček, Karla Brücknerová, Petr Hlaďo.

Redakční rada: Milan Pol (předseda redakční rady), Gunnar Berg, Michael Bottery, Hana Cervinkova, Theo van Dellen, Eve Eisenschmidt, Peter Gavora, Yin Cheong Cheng, Miloš Kučera, Adam Lefstein, Sami Lehesvuori, Jan Mareš, Jiří Mareš, Jiří Němec, Angelika Paseka, Jana Poláchová Vašťatková, Milada Rabušicová, Alina Reznitskaya, Michael Schratz, Martin Strouhal, Petr Svojanovský, António Teodoro, Tony Townsend, Anita Trnavčevič, Jan Vanhoof, Arnošt Veselý, Kateřina Vlčková, Eliška Walterová.

Časopis vydává čtyři čísla ročně.

ISSN 1803-7437 (print), ISSN 2336-4521 (online)