Trust and Control in Implementing Changes: A Study of How Principals Handle Changes in Time Allocated for Math in Primary Schools

Laila Niklasson

Abstrakt


Depending on the national context, school principals are more or less used to continuous development. Impetus for development can come from different areas, such as professional organizations or research studies, and different levels, such as national or local initiatives. In Sweden, several initiatives for teaching development have been initiated since 2010 due to low scores on mathematics tests (PISA and TIMMS) and based on research. Therefore, an increase in teaching hours for mathematics in compulsory schools was implemented in 2012 at the national level. The aim of this study is to present and discuss how principals have coped with this change. As the change mostly concerned grades 1–3 (primary school pupils aged 7–9), principals responsible for this level were asked to complete an e-mail questionnaire and interviewed. The findings show that the principals prioritized organizational changes. Revisions had to be made to all schedules for teachers and pupils as well as some of those for recreational instructors and even school buses. The principals also promoted continuing education in mathematics for teachers. All of the changes were accepted by principals, staff, and parents. In contrast, few pedagogical issues were otherwise brought up and the follow-up to the change was not systematic. The different levels in the steering chain show that all levels believed that the next level down, or the level above, should carry out their duty concerning organization. On the other hand, the entire national initiative for time allocation and continuing education can be perceived as showing distrust in how the local level and professionals have handled the development of teaching math.

Klíčová slova


educational change; principals; trust; organization

https://doi.org/10.5817/SP2017-2-4

Celý článek:

PDF (English)

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Burke, W. W. (2011). Organization change: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Clarke, Å. R. S. (2000). The principal at the centre of reform: Some lessons from the field. International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory and Practice, 3(1), 57–73.

Clement, J. (2014). Managing mandated educational change. School Leadership & Management, 34(1), 39–51. | DOI 10.1080/13632434.2013.813460

Eskilstuna kommun. (2012). Barn- och utbildningsnämndens verksamhetsplan 2013. [Activity Plan 2013 for children and education authority]. Verksamhetsåret 2013 och läsåret 2013/2014. Eskilstuna: Barn och utbildningsförvaltningen, Eskilstuna kommun.

Giddens, A. (1999 [1991]). Modernitet och självidentitet. Självet och samhället i den senmoderna epoken. [Modernity and self-identity. Self and society in the late modern age]. First published 1991, translated to Swedish 1999. Gothenburg: Daidalos.

Holmes, K., Clement, J., & Albright, J. (2013). The complex task of leading educational change in schools. School Leadership & Management: Formerly School Organization, 33(3), 270–283. | DOI 10.1080/13632434.2013.800477

Kotter, P. J. (1996). Leading change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Li, P. P. (2008). Toward a geocentric framework on trust. Management and Organization Review, 4(3), 413–439. | DOI 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2008.00120.x

Luhmann, N. (2005 [1968]). Förtroende. En mechanism för reduction av social komplexitet. [Trust. A mechanism for reducing social complexity]. First published 1968, translated to Swedish 2005. Gothenburg: Daidalos.

Niklasson, L. (2014). Implementering av förändrad timplan för matematik år 1–3: Skolledarnas första intryck [Implementation of change in time allocation for mathematics grades 1–3: School leader's first impressions]. Eskilstuna: Mälardalens högskola.

Patton, Q. M. (2008). Utilization-focused evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Regeringen. (2012a). Utökad undervisningstid i matematik. [Increased time allocation for mathematics]. Proposition 2012/2013:64. Stockholm.

Regeringen. (2012b). Utökad undervisningstid i matematik. [Increased time allocation for mathematics]. Betänkande 2012/2013:UbU16. Stockholm.

Rosengren, K.-E. (1975). Sociologisk metod. [Sociological method]. Stockholm: Esselte Studium AB.

Skolverkets författningssamling / SKOLFS. (2010). Förordning om Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet. [Regulation about Curriculum for compulsory school, preschool class and leisure time]. Stockholm: Skolverket.

Skolverket. (2012). Utökad undervisningstid i matematik. [Increased time allocation for mathematics]. Rapport 378. Stockholm.

Skolverket. (2013). Skolutveckling. Retrieved September 18, 2013, from http://www.skolverket. se/skolutveckling/larande/matematik/mer-undervisningstid-i-matematik-1.182959

Skolverket. (2014). Statistik och utvärdering. Retrieved May 12, 2014, from http://www.skolverket.se/statistik-och-utvardering/internationella-studier/pisa/kraftig-forsamring-i-pisa-1.167616

Skolverket. (2016a). TIMMS. Stockholm.

Skolverket. (2016b). PISA 2015. Stockholm.

Statens offentliga utredningar / SOU. (2015). Rektorn och styrkedjan. Betänkande. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet.

Starr, K. (2011). Principals and the politics of resistance to change. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 39(6), 642–645. | DOI 10.1177/1741143211416390

Stebbins, A. R. (2001). Exploratory research in the social sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Svensk författningssamling / SFS. (2010a). Skollag. [Education Act]. 26 kap., 4 §. Stockholm.

Svensk författningssamling / SFS. (2010b). Skollag. [Education Act]. Amendment 2013:248. Stockholm.

Uline, L. C. (2001). The imperative to change. International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 13–28.

Vetenskapsrådet. (2011). God forskningssed. [Ethical principles for research]. Stockholm.




 


Časopis Ústavu pedagogických věd FF MU.

Výkonná redakce: Klára Šeďová, Roman Švaříček, Zuzana Šalamounová, Martin Sedláček, Karla Brücknerová, Petr Hlaďo.

Redakční rada: Milan Pol (předseda redakční rady), Gunnar Berg, Michael Bottery, Hana Cervinkova, Theo van Dellen, Eve Eisenschmidt, Peter Gavora, Yin Cheong Cheng, Miloš Kučera, Adam Lefstein, Sami Lehesvuori, Jan Mareš, Jiří Mareš, Jiří Němec, Angelika Paseka, Jana Poláchová Vašťatková, Milada Rabušicová, Alina Reznitskaya, Michael Schratz, Martin Strouhal, Petr Svojanovský, António Teodoro, Tony Townsend, Anita Trnavčevič, Jan Vanhoof, Arnošt Veselý, Kateřina Vlčková, Eliška Walterová.

Časopis vydává čtyři čísla ročně.

ISSN 1803-7437 (print), ISSN 2336-4521 (online)