‘Head’ and ‘Heart’ Work: Re-Appraising the Place of Theory in the ‘Academic Dimension’ of Pre-Service Teacher Education in England

Janet Orchard, Lucy Kelly, Carrie Winstanley

Abstrakt


This paper reflects on the needs of early career, pre-service and newly qualified teachers (NQTs) in the English education system, specifically the contested place of what we term the academic dimension within their pre-service professional formation. This largely theoretical paper begins with a philosophical review of an established debate concerning the relationship between theory, research, and professional knowledge in teaching, arguing that the discussion is irreducibly normative. Hogan's notion of teaching as "heart work" is extended to include "head work" and the case made for teachers developing a conceptual map as part of their professional formation to guide them in making good judgements in classrooms. From this, a pedagogical problem follows, in developing new approaches to engage teachers with theory given this is relatively absent in the English context. Four themes are identified from a brief review of existing studies concerned with engaging teachers in the academic dimension of pre-service teacher education which we relate to illustrative comments we have gathered informally from our own students which suggest they may appreciate the value of critical reflection on practice promoted by universities more than some policy makers in this context recognise. We conclude by suggesting ways in which one innovation in ITE in England with which we have been involved, Philosophy for Teachers (P4T), integrates the academic dimension and developing practice which relate to the four themes found in the review of existing literature, while focused on educational theory specifically. P4T fosters, we maintain, characteristically humanistic and relational reflection that is otherwise under-represented in professional formation for pre-and in-service teachers in England.

Klíčová slova


theory; practice; critical reflection; teacher education; England

https://doi.org/10.5817/SP2020-2-7

Celý článek:

PDF (English)

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Alexander, R. (n.d.). Dialogic teaching. Robin Alexander. http://www.robinalexander.org.uk/dialogic-teaching/

Alexander, R. (1984). Primary teaching. Cassell.

BERA. (2014). Research and the teaching profession. Building the capacity for a self-improving education system. https://www.bera.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/BERA-RSA-ResearchTeaching-Profession-FULL-REPORT-for-web.pdf

Burstow, B. (2014, June 25). Teachers need quality time set aside to keep learning. The Conversation. http://theconversation.com/teachers-need-quality-time-set-aside-to-keep- learning-28412

Cain, T. (2015). Teachers' engagement with research texts: beyond instrumental, conceptual or strategic use. Journal of Education for Teaching, 41(5), 478–492. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2015.1105536 | DOI 10.1080/02607476.2015.1105536

Campbell, E. (2003). The ethical teacher. Open University Press.

Carr, W. (2006). Education without theory. British Journal of Educational Studies, 54(2), 136–159. | DOI 10.1111/j.1467-8527.2006.00344.x

Carter, A. (2015). Carter review of initial teacher training. HMSO.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2017). Teacher education around the world: What can we learn from international practice? European Journal of Teacher Education, 40(3), 291–309. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2017.1315399 | DOI 10.1080/02619768.2017.1315399

Department for Education (DfE). (2010). The Importance of Teaching: The Schools White Paper 2010. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/175429/CM-7980.pdf

Department of Education and Science (DES). (1989). The Education Reform Act 1988. DES.

Ellis, V. (2012). Living with ghosts: 'Disciplines', envy and the future of teacher education. Changing English: Studies in Culture and Education, 19(2), 155–166. https://doi.org/10.1080/1358684X.2012.680758 | DOI 10.1080/1358684X.2012.680758

Ellis, V., & Orchard, J. (2014). Learning teaching from experience: multiple perspectives, international contexts. Bloomsbury Academy.

Furlong, J., & Lawn, M. (2011). Disciplines of education: Their role in the future of education research. Routledge.

Hogan, P. (2003). Teaching and learning as a way of life. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 37(2), 207–223. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.00321 | DOI 10.1111/1467-9752.00321

Hogan, P. (2014, March). Turning afresh to the practical. Keynote Symposium Presentation at the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Annual Conference, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. https://www.eiseverywhere.com/file_uploads/b2f74f1415e84b2b8554289aedfae966_PESGBConferenceProgrammeBooklet2014.pdf

Hordern, J. (2019). Knowledge, evidence, and the configuration of educational practice. Education Sciences, 9(2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020070 | DOI 10.3390/educsci9020070

John, P., & Prior, J. (2003). Conceptions, contentions and connections: How teachers read and understand different genres of educational research. In R. Sutherland, G. Claxton, & A. Pollard (Eds.), Learning and teaching where worldviews meet (pp. 231–243). Trentham Books.

Korthagen, F. A. J. (2001). Linking practice and theory: The pedagogy of realistic teacher education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lagemann, E. C. (2000). An elusive science: the troubling history of education research. Chicago University Press.

Leat, D., Reid, A., & Lofthouse, R. (2015). Teachers' experiences of engagement with and in educational research: what can be learned from teachers' views? Oxford Review of Education, 41(2), 270–286. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2015.1021193 | DOI 10.1080/03054985.2015.1021193

McIntyre, D. (1995). Initial teacher education as practical theorising: A response to Paul Hirst. British Journal of Educational Studies, 43(4), 365–383. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071005.1995.9974045 | DOI 10.1080/00071005.1995.9974045

Murray, J., & Passy, R. (2014). Primary teacher education in England: 40 years on. Journal of Education for Teaching, 40(5), 492–506. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02607476.2014.956542

Murris, K. S. (2008). Philosophy with children, the stingray and the educative value of disequilibrium. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 42(3-4), 667–685. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.2008.00640.x | DOI 10.1111/j.1467-9752.2008.00640.x

Murris, K., Bramall, S., Egley,S., Gregory, M., Haynes, J., & Williams, S. (2009, April 3-5). What Philosophy of Children is not: Responses to some Critics and Constructive Suggestions for the Dialogue about the Role of P4C in Higher Education. Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Annual Conference, New College, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Oancea, A., & Orchard, J. (2012). The future of teacher education. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 46(4), 574–588. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.2012.00888.x | DOI 10.1111/j.1467-9752.2012.00888.x

Orchard, J., & Davids, N. (2019). Philosophy for teachers (P4T) in South Africa: re-imagining provision to support new teachers' applied ethical decision-making. Ethics and Education, 14(3), 333–350. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17449642.2019.1617392

Orchard, J., & Wan, S. (2019). East meets west: philosophy, critical reflection and the development of teacher leadership in teacher education. In Encyclopaedia of Teacher Education. Springer.

Orchard, J., & Winch, C. (2015). What training do teachers need?: Why theory is necessary to good teaching. Impact, 2015(22), 1–43. https://doi.org/10.1111/2048-416X.2015.12002.x | DOI 10.1111/2048-416X.2015.12002.x

Orchard, J., & Winstanley, C. (2019). Philosophy for (Thinking) Teachers. In A. D. Colgan, & B. Maxwell (Eds.), The importance of philosophy in teacher education: Mapping the decline and its consequences. Routledge.

Orchard, J., Heilbronn, R., & Winstanley, C. (2016). Philosophy for teachers (P4T): developing new teachers' applied ethical-decision making. Ethics and Education, 11(1), 42–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/17449642.2016.1145495 | DOI 10.1080/17449642.2016.1145495

Orchard, J., Heilbronn, R., & Winstanley, C. (2020). In philosophical conversation with: New and beginning teachers. In: A. Fulford, G. Robinson, & R. Smith (Eds.), Philosophy and Community Theories, Practices, and Possibilities (pp. 145–162). Bloomsbury Academic.

Phillips, R., & Furlong, J. (2001). Education, reform and the state: twenty five years of politics, policy and practice. Routledge.

Procter, R. (2015). Teachers and school research practices: the gaps between the values and practices of teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching, 41(5), 464–477. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2015.1105535 | DOI 10.1080/02607476.2015.1105535

Shortt, D., Reynolds, P., McAteer, M., & Hallett, F. (2015). To believe, to think, to know – To teach? Ethical deliberation in teacher education. In R. Heilbronn, & L. Foreman-Peck (Eds.), Philosophical perspectives on teacher education, (pp. 89–108). Wiley Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118977859.ch6 | DOI 10.1002/9781118977859.ch6

Smith, K., & Hodson, E. (2010). Theorising practice in initial teacher training. Journal of Education for Teaching, 36(3), 259–275. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2010.497366 | DOI 10.1080/02607476.2010.497366

Stenhouse, L. (1967). Culture and education. Nelson.

Tamir, P. (1988). Subject matter and related pedagogical knowledge in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4(2), 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-051X(88)90011-X | DOI 10.1016/0742-051X(88)90011-X

Tibble, J.W. (1966). The study of education. Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Williams, A., McKeown, S., Orchard, J., & Wright, K. (2019). Promoting positive community relations: what can RE learn from social psychology and the Shared Space project? Journal of Beliefs and Values, 40(2), 215–227. https://doi.org/10.1080/13617672.2019.1596582 | DOI 10.1080/13617672.2019.1596582

Winch, C. (2012). For philosophy of education in teacher education. Oxford Review of Education, (38)3, 305–322. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2012.693299 | DOI 10.1080/03054985.2012.693299

Winch, C., Oancea, A., & Orchard, J. (2015). The contribution of educational research to teachers professional learning: Philosophical understandings. Oxford Review of Education, (41)2, 202–216. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2015.1017406 | DOI 10.1080/03054985.2015.1017406




 


Časopis Ústavu pedagogických věd FF MU.

Výkonná redakce: Klára Šeďová, Roman Švaříček, Zuzana Šalamounová, Martin Sedláček, Karla Brücknerová, Petr Hlaďo.

Redakční rada: Milan Pol (předseda redakční rady), Gunnar Berg, Michael Bottery, Hana Cervinkova, Theo van Dellen, Eve Eisenschmidt, Peter Gavora, Yin Cheong Cheng, Miloš Kučera, Adam Lefstein, Sami Lehesvuori, Jan Mareš, Jiří Mareš, Jiří Němec, Angelika Paseka, Jana Poláchová Vašťatková, Milada Rabušicová, Alina Reznitskaya, Michael Schratz, Martin Strouhal, Petr Svojanovský, António Teodoro, Tony Townsend, Anita Trnavčevič, Jan Vanhoof, Arnošt Veselý, Kateřina Vlčková, Eliška Walterová.

Časopis vydává čtyři čísla ročně.

ISSN 1803-7437 (print), ISSN 2336-4521 (online)