Sportovní příprava a trénink v řecko-římské antice

Title in English Sports Preparation and Training in the Graeco-Roman Antiquity


Year of publication 2016
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Česká kinantropologie
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Arts

Field History
Keywords agón; athletics; gladiators; Greece; kalokagathia; preparation; Rome; training
Description The paper deals with sports preparation and training in antiquity, especially the training of Greek athletics and sports training of gladiators. It analyzes training in general, its systems, methods and training. When analyzing preparation for individual agón competition the paper first deals with running competitions, sprinters and long-distance runners as basic sport disciplines. There follows analysis of the preparations for the “hard-athletics” agón (boxing, wrestling and pankration), which was similar to the competition and significantly different in preparation and training. Further on there continues analysis of training of pentathlonists with special preparation for its individual parts (running, discus throw, javelin throw, long jump and wrestling). The final section is dedicated to the training of gladiators, which was in its foundation the same, but in specialization according to the types of gladiators it was different. It was not possible for example for retiarius to train the same way like secutor. In this section the paper also compares Greek and Roman conception of sport, especially on the background view of Greeks of combat with weapons (hoplomachia), and the perception of munus gladiatorum by Romans-spectators. History of the Graeco-Roman antiquity is from its beginnings to the transformation or fall of late Rome inseparably inherent in physical exercise and sport that could not be separated from history, that is why also preparation and training (as this history) developed dynamically and achieved substantial progress. But with advances and scientific viewing of the training there came commercialization and increased corruption which overlapped original cultural ideals of kalokagathia, areté, sófrosyné. By progress, and also by sport progress, it was contributed to the transformation and the collapse of original culture.
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