Eye-tracking technology in self-regulated learning from multimedia materials : A review

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Year of publication 2022
Type Appeared in Conference without Proceedings
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Arts

Description Self-regulated learning has been the subject of scientific discourse in the last two decades, exceptional theoretical and conceptual developments have occurred (Boekaerts et al., 2000; Zimmerman & Schunk, 2011). In general, self-regulated learning can be described as a learning process that is composed of cognitive strategies, motivation, and metacognition and based on the independence and responsibility of each student over their own way of learning (Carneiro et al., 2011). Self-regulated learning is a cyclical process divided into three main phases, which include the preparatory phase, the performance phase, and the reflective phase (Zimmerman, 2000). Within these phases, specific processes such as selection, strategic planning, time management, and more take place, which shape the overall approach to learning (Panadero, 2017). Students’ ability to regulate their own learning is particularly important in the context of online learning and online educational systems. The main reason is the lower teacher presence and therefore higher demands on the students’ autonomy and their ability to study actively and independently, or in other words, to regulate their own learning (Wong et al., 2019). This explains why it is important to study learning materials from which the students learn within an online educational system. The form and the content of the learning materials can enhance or hinder self-regulation and the above-mentioned metacognitive processes and thus lead to better or worse learning outcomes. One way to study students’ learning from different types of learning materials is to focus on the learning strategies, which they employ while learning from presented materials. These learning strategies are reflected in where and in what sequence the student is looking. Thus, students’ gaze can be recorded using an eye-tracking device, which can provide us with rich information about different learning strategies employed while studying from various types of learning materials (Alemdag & Cagiltay, 2018). Analysis of eye movements while learning from different types of learning materials can bring new information to self-regulated learning research. The goal of this paper is to present the results of an integrative review in which we analysed and summarized empirical studies that were focused on an analysis of university students’ eye movements to study their metacognitive processes and self-regulation while learning from multimedia learning materials.
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