Occurrence of cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin-a and their homologs in the southern Czech Republic-Taxonomical, analytical, and molecular approaches

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Year of publication 2021
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Harmful Algae
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Web https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568988321001311?via%3Dihub
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2021.102101
Keywords Anatoxin-a; Homoanatoxin; Cylindrospermopsin; cyrJ gene; anaC gene; Cyanotoxin producers
Description Water bloom-forming cyanobacteria have a severe impact on freshwater quality. Although some cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystins have been studied extensively, other toxins like anatoxin-a (ATX) and their structural analogs - as well as cyanobacterial taxa producing these toxins remain to be explored in detail. The present study investigated levels of ATX, CYN and their homologs along with the occurrence of anaC and cyrJ genes in water blooms in 16 sites in the Czech Republic that were pre-selected concerning the presence of potential toxin producers. Besides, we also studied toxins and genes in a series of strains available in our laboratories. ATX and its congener HATX were detected in 5 natural biomass samples from the Czech Republic (maximum concentration 2.8 micrograms per gram d.w.). Interestingly, the anaC gene coding for ATX production was not detected in any of these toxin-positive biomass samples. The concentrations of ATX congeners in cyanobacterial laboratory strains were about 10-times higher than those of the original ATX, which calls for further research addressing levels and hazards of ATX analogs. Regarding the CYN and 7-deoxyCYN (other CYN congeners were not analyzed in this study) - these toxins were identified in a single small pond in the Czech Republic at concentrations 4.3 and 2.7 micrograms per gram of biomass d.w., respectively (corresponded to dissolved concentrations higher than 1 microgram per liter). The CYN-positive sample was dominated by CYN-producing taxa Raphidiopsis (basionym Cylindrospermopsis) and Cuspidothrix. We also confirmed the presence of a specific cyrJ gene in this natural bloom sample. To our knowledge, this is the first study pointing to Raphidiopsis (Cylindrospermopsis) and Cuspidothrix as producers of CYN in Europe. This observation calls for further research because of their increasing occurrence in (Central) Europe along with the global change. The present study demonstrates the importance of using combined (taxonomical, analytical, and molecular) approaches in the assessment of hazardous cyanobacteria and their toxins in freshwaters.
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